and Puritan Representations of Royal Martyrs This journal article is derived from my doctoral thesis undertaken at UEA Norwich, which provided the first in depth comparison of printed representations of Catholic and Protestant martyrdom in Tudor England since the coach outlet online coach factory outlet work of McGrath and Dickens during the 1960s.
In this piece of research, a martyr is defined as one who bore witness to persecution during the Tudor Reformation (c.1530 1600), and who ultimately died for his or her beliefs rather than abjure. The main themes discussed were issues of continuity and change: to what extent did Protestant depictions of martyrs draw upon pre Reformation ideas? Were they a radical break from the past; or did they represent gradual evolution and transition in which some older beliefs were perpetuated, some were reinterpreted allegorically, and others were abandoned and replaced with new representations? Novel contributions to the historiography include the representation of non martyrs (individuals executed for their religion but who failed to gain full recognition in Catholic or Protestant martyrologies); Puritan efforts to reform the Church of England internally by supplanting lingering pre Reformation rituals, relics and images with abstract, Old Testament inspired sermons; and the depiction of persecutors' untimely deaths as evidence not only of divine providence, but also of the illegitimacy of rival churches. Additionally, I coach outlet sale 591 have examined coach handbags online depictions of the state's dominance over the criminal's body and the extent order was maintained through terror or, conversely, willing popular consent. Although firmly grounded in history, my methodology also incorporated elements from other disciplines, especially gender studies, death studies, religion, philosophy, and some aspects of art history. In particular, I have reassessed gender roles in the sixteenth century, and discussed the language of inversion, where exceptionally courageous female martyrs were portrayed with the masculine virtues of courage, analytical rationality or self control; and allegedly negative feminine traits such as cowardice, deceit, treachery, or sexual misconduct were used to shame and discredit clergymen from rival religious groups or sects. Babington, Anthony, To Queen Mary, 6 July 1586. Boleyn, Anne, To the King asserting her innocence, May 1536. no.30, fol.228r. , To the Magistrates of Bristol, 20 January 1535. Lansdowne MS.1045, Art.62, Fol.79r. Microfilm M982/20. Cecil, William, To Secretary Davison, 1586. Egerton MS.2124, no.12, fol.38r. Cranmer, Thomas, To Henry VIII, May 1536. no.29, fol.225r. Microfilm 912 SCH/67809. Elizabeth I, Proclamation declaring the Sentence lately given against the Queen of Scots, Richmond, December 4 1586. no.250, fol.450r. , To Sir Amias Paulet, 1586. Fekenham, John, Communication between Lady Jane and Mr Feckenham four Days before her Death, , ed. John Foxe. Lansdowne MS.389, fol.142r. Hatton, Christopher, Summary of charges and proofs against Mary, 1586. Egerton MS.2124, no.13, fol.42v. Powell, David, To Lord Burghley, London, 25 April 1589. Lansdowne MS.60, fol.42r. Stuart, Mary Queen of Scots, Declaration of Mary Queen of Scots touching her Right to the Succession of the Crown of England, Sheffield, July 23 1583. , To Anthony Babington, Chartley, 17 July 1586. , Declaration of the Queen of Scots asserting her Innocence, 1586. Walsingham, Francis, Certain Articles to be remembered in the Queens Marriage, February 1572. Microfilm M2507, SCH 84999. Abbot, George, An Exposition vpon the prophet coach outlet purses valley Ionah (London, 1600). Henry Huntington Library, STC 34. Allen, William, A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crowne of Ingland (Antwerp, 1595). Henry Huntington Library, STC 19398. Anon., A ballad rejoicing the sudden fall of rebels of rebels that thought to devour us all (London, 1570). British Library, STC 1326. (London, 1533). British Library, STC 656. Baker, Richard, A Chronicle of the Kings of England from the time of the Romans Government unto the Raigne of our Soveraigne Lord, King Charles (London, 1643). British Library, Wing B501. Banks, John, "To Henry Bullinger, London, March 15 1554", in Original Letters Relative to the English Reformation, ed. Hastings Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1846), 303 305. Bateman, Stephen. The New Arival of the Three Gracis into England (London, 1580). British Library, STC 1584. Bentley, Thomas, The Monument of Matrones (London, 1582). Henry Huntington Library, STC 1892. Brice, Thomas, A compendious Register in Metre, conteining the names, and pacient suffryngs of the membres of Jesus Christ (London, 1559).
British Library, STC 3276. Burnet, Gilbert, The History of the Reformation in England (London, 1681). Henry Huntington Library, Wing B5798.
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